A photomicrograph shows an X chromosome at left, alongside a shrunken Y chromosome. The Y chromosome is passed down exclusively from father to son and can serve as an indicator of male-line human diversity. (University of Arizona)

Scientists say an African-American male’s odd genetic signature suggests that the human Y chromosome’s lineage goes back further in time than they thought — perhaps due to interbreeding with other populations such as Neanderthals.

“This really upsets a lot of ideas, but at the same time, it’s understandable if we accept that human populations were structured in the past so that there were little pockets of diversity,” said Michael Hammer, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Arizona who is one of the authors of a study published in the American Journal of Human Genetics.

The study focuses on the analysis of a DNA sample that was obtained from an African-American living in South Carolina and submitted to the Genographic Project, a National Geographic effort aimed at mapping human origins and migration. The funny thing about this sample is that it didn’t match up with any of the previously known genetic signatures for the Y chromosome, which is passed down from father to son.

“Nobody expected to find anything like this,” Hammer said in a news release.

A team led by Fernando Mendez, a researcher in Hammer’s lab, analyzed more than 240,000 DNA base pairs on the African-American’s Y chromosome. A comparison of the differences between the mystery genetic signature and previously known signatures led the team to conclude that the most recent common ancestor for the entire group lived about 338,000 years ago.

That goes further back than the fossil record goes for anatomically modern humans, Hammer said. “The fossil record speaks to 195,000 years or 200,000 years,” he said. It also goes further back than the previous date for the most recent common ancestor based on Y-chromosome analysis, which is in the range of 142,000 years.

Click here to read more.